**Curriculm connections: **Astronomy and by extension astrophysics
is fascinating to the general public but largely absent from high school curricula.
However, it's easy to fit it in. Dark Matter and Black Holes can be measured
using **Newton's Uuniversal Law of Gravity**, his **Second
Law of Motion** and his equations for **circular motion**.
The Schwartzchild radius can be calculated using the **conservation of
energy, **where** kinetic energy** is changed into **gravitational
potential energy**. The evidence for Hubble's Law comes from the **Doppler
Effect** and using **d = vt** with the Hubble Law lets the
students calculate the age of the universe.

1) Dark Matter

It seems that the majority of mass in the universe (80%!!) cannot be seen. This
is not because it is very dim. It is because it is made of a new type of matter
that does not interact with light. We don't know what it is, but we have given
it a name - dark matter. The evidence for dark matter can be understood and
studied by high school students - even those who are just starting high school.
This evidence has really strong ties to a standard curriculum that never mentions
dark matter.

2) Dark Energy - This is a very difficult topic but you can find some activities
dealing with this in the new resource from the Perimeter
Institute called **The Expanding Universe**. However, your
best bet is to go to the eleventh unit of Physic
for the 21st Century. This has an excellent 30-minute video that looks at
two of the lines of evidence. It also has a lesson with activities and a simulation.

3) The Big Bang

It seems that the universe started as a very small, hot place just less than
14 billion years ago. Even more fascinating than this, is understanding how
we know this. The main ideas can be explored by students as young as 12 and
there are a number of activities that can help them examine the data and explore
what it means.

4) Black Holes

Most students have heard of black holes, but most of what they know is confused
or really wrong. You can use your students' interest in black holes to motivate
using Newton's Laws of gravity and circular motion to measure the mass of a
black hole. A beginning understanding of what is a black hole starts with consrevation
of energy and the speed limit of light. You can explore how we know what we
know and how our models of gravity have changed.